Air Quality Air pollution is a major environmental risk to health and is estimated to cause approximately two million premature deaths worldwide per year [ 24 ].
Valuation results are crucial for the formulation of economic instruments to internalize the externalities created by the public nature of environmental resources.
Benefits are mainly reported by calculating the Value of a Statistical Life For a review of the literature calculating the value of a statistical life based on labor and housing market data see Viscusi and Aldy [ 13 ].
Combined with the costs of providing different interventions, a cost-effectiveness analysis cost per QALY can follow to allow for comparisons of different interventions. Benefits from greenhouse gases mitigation policies are also addressed by Burtraw et al. In this context, original values from existing studies are transferred to policy sites after correcting for certain parameters.
To ensure environmental protection while enhancing economic development, economic instruments should be properly designed and implemented and in this respect information from valuation studies is crucial. The findings of the valuation studies have important policy implications, since the environmental risk factors that are studied can largely be avoided by efficient and sustainable policy interventions.
Future valuation efforts could therefore apply this relatively new stated preference method to assess the social benefit associated with policies attempting to improve air quality.
Microbe contamination of groundwater due to sewage outfalls and high concentration of nutrients in marine and coastal waters due to agricultural runoff are among the most serious threats [ 44 ]. Based on evidence from existing epidemiological dose-response functions a contingent valuation survey was employed to allow for a direct estimate of the health benefits of reduced water pollution.
Opponents of QALYs use argue that these measures cannot in general appropriately represent individual preferences for health, while they are consistent with the utility theory under very restrictive conditions [ 19 ].
Results from valuation studies adopting a benefit transfer framework to circumvent the time and money demands of conducting an original study are also reported in the literature [ 3233 ].
Climate Change An understanding of the likely impacts of climate change on human welfare is crucial for making an informed decision about the best response strategy to the enhanced greenhouse effect. The main approaches for health impact valuations can be broadly classified into revealed and stated preference techniques.
The review, however, is restricted to health benefits from air pollution exposure. Given European and international calls for sustainable water resources management, authors believe that valuing health benefits from surface and groundwater water quality improvements could be a challenging direction for future research especially in the developing world where water quality issues are particularly prominent and the lack of valuations studies is noteworthy.
In the infrastructurally disadvantaged developing world the water contamination problem is even more prominent [ 46 ]. Valuation studies are then conducted to monetize health outcomes given the number of exposures and the associated risk predicted from the dose-response functions.
Comparing results with studies applying the damage function approach, authors find evidence that hedonic price analysis does not capture all of the health costs of air pollution because individuals are not fully informed about all of the health effects to incorporate them into property values.
Finally, Aunan et al. To halt environmental degradation and associated health effects economic instruments should intend to provide incentives for adopting preventative measures and refraining from polluting activities. To address this challenge a number of valuation studies have been conducted in both developing and developed countries applying different methods to capture health benefits from improved environmental quality.
The Value of a Statistical Life was transferred to Russia after adjustment to estimate benefits of reduced mortality. Cost of illness studies measure the direct medical costs, nursing care, drugs and indirect opportunity economic costs associated with a disease and estimate the potential savings from the eradication of the disease.
Accordingly respondents are asked to either state their willingness to pay for a prevention scenario stated preference approach or the benefits are elicited through the costs that would be saved if the risk was eradicated cost of illness studies.
In a meta-analysis regression, therefore, the dependent variable is a common summary statistic, such as a predicted variable for the Willingness to Pay, whereas the independent variables include characteristics of the primary data, study design, valuation method, sample size, model specification, econometric methods, date of publication [ 15 ].
A review of the literature evaluating the welfare impacts of climate change, including climate variation-related diseases is also presented in Tol [ 5 ].
Minimizing exposure to environmental risk factors by enhancing air quality and access to improved sources of drinking and bathing water, sanitation and clean energy is found to be associated with significant health benefits and can contribute significantly to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals of environmental sustainability, health and development.
The estimated annual benefit of improved health conditions alone is likely to exceed the investments needed to implement the program even under the lowest estimates. Once aggregated over the full range of beneficiaries, monetary benefits estimated through valuation studies can be compared with the costs of the relevant environmental or health intervention policies through cost-benefit analysis to derive useful information on the efficiency of the planned policy.
Results from multiple studies provide strong evidence that the public health benefits related to greenhouse gases mitigation strategies are substantial.is a landmark in the history of attempts to improve health by reducing exposure to harmful environmental pollution, nearly all of which is created by human activity.
This report aims “to raise global awareness of pollution, end neglect of pollution-related disease, and mobilise resources and the political will needed to effectively confront pollution”. How are Human Health, Environmental and Economic Assessments Developed?
What is the Impact of Air Pollution on Human Health and the Environment? Determining how various pollutants may impact human health and the environment requires information from a range of disciplines, such as toxicology and epidemiology. An Evaluation of the Implication of Environmental Air Pollution on Human Life PAGES 7.
WORDS 1, View Full Essay. More essays like this: environment, air pollution, human life. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University.
Exactly what I needed. ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION: ITS EFFECTS ON LIFE AND ITS REMEDIES Dr. Mashhood Ahmad Khan health impacts attributed to environmental pollution (Kimani, ), Human exposure to pollution is Environment dying is global perilous point which catastrophically the human, animals and plants.
Air pollution results are. Human activities induce such changes in the environment in the form of pollution and perturbation that cause widespread damage to the living organisms in the biosphere. The result is the disruption of ecological balance, a growing threat to the entire life support system which is rapidly facing extinction.
EVALUATION OF HEALTH EFFECTS OF POLLUTION by Victor Hugo BORJA-ABURTO, José Alberto ROSALES-CASTILLO, Victor Manuel Anthropogenic air pollution has been a way of life for almost years now.
The industrial revolution when environmental conditions caused a 5-day accumulation of air pollution.Download