A Linguistic Approach How then should we go about learning to read and write better? Hand in the paper as is, and receive negative feedback. Flower reiterates why using an initial writer-based prose is advantageous here, so the writer may articulate him or herself with clear, issue-centered organization.
Ask students to imagine how the reader would respond to what they are writing. Flower touches on the difficulty some students have in deviating from the standard descriptions of their assignments — thinking outside the box and constructing reader-based pieces.
Flower states that students can better consider the needs of the audience if instructors took the time to flesh out that audience for them and help the students consider specific audiences and potential feedback from those audiences.
I feel like these types of assignments are so much more meaningful. As an example, I never write a paper unless I have a very strong focus statement and have spent some time really thinking about it.
Writer-based revision appears to be the building block or introductory method to learning how to write and then properly revise reader-based prose. Choices are examined not only within the view of writing as a sequential activity, one sentence after another, but also in a more holistic or organic way in terms of a mix of ingredients or intertwining patterns of elements throughout a text.
If we think about it, we have been told a lot in general about how to approach reading a text, and surprisingly little about how exactly to find meaning in a text. What should we look for, then, when we read? They will show you ways in which thoughts can be linked within a discussion, both in terms of connections from sentence to sentence and in terms of relationships between ideas and sections of a discussion.
Readings are labeled and grouped according to these notions and students are then taught to write a narrative or a description. Some people prefer to begin writing everything that comes into their head and then sit down to sort through their ideas and arrange them into a coherent piece of writing, keeping some of the information, tossing out other ideas and arranging the order of the writing.
Flower calls for teaching students revision for readers as something that should be undertaken separately and with more gravitas, so students can make the transition easier and with less apprehension. The Traditional Genre Approach Freshman composition texts are generally organized on the basis of prose genres: She gives an exercise example of this, and then displays criteria writers can use to evaluate the mutual goal.
She states that it is normal for first drafts to be more writer-based; therefore it makes more sense to teach first how to properly revise the sort of writing that comes naturally to many people.
For a broader view of how meaning is conveyed by text, these pages focus on an examination of the choices open to a writer in forming a text: However, it would seem that in this scenario, the process of revision, though frustrating, is worthwhile.
Another key point made is when Flower discusses the writing experiment with the bus system letter. Writer-based prose has, according to Flower, two features: One additional observation Flower makes is utilizing skills learned in other courses to aid in this process, such as her suggestion to incorporate the sense of audience a student learns in a speech class.
They do not tell ushowto question,whatto look for when we read, orhowto find the meaning to summarize.
Teaching Revision Strategies Strategy 1: There is a particular style of writing that is especially beneficial for students, and coaxing them to get into the mindset of using reader-based prose is one that requires a number of different tactics from their teachers.
I feel like her suggestion is one of many tools we can use when helping students.Reading instruction continues to be one of the most debated topics in education.
Some experts tout the importance of basal-based instructional methods, which include learning phonetic rules methodically, reading stories written based on those phonics rules, and answering questions about each story.
The Traditional Genre Approach Freshman composition texts are generally organized on the basis of prose genres: description, narration, explanation and argumentation, and the like. Readings are labeled and grouped according to these notions and students are then taught to write a narrative or a description.
The process approach treats all writing as a creative act which requires time and positive feedback to be done well.
In process writing, the teacher moves away from being someone who sets students a writing topic and receives the finished product for correction without any intervention in the writing process itself.
Approaches to Writing Instruction for Adolescent English Language Learners A DISCUSSION OF RECENT RESEARCH AND PRACTICE LITERATURE IN RELATION TO NATIONWIDE STANDARDS. Definition. Reader-based prose is a kind of public writing: a text that is composed (or revised) with an audience in mind.
Contrast with writer-based prose.
The concept of reader-based prose is part of a controversial social-cognitive theory of writing that was introduced by professor of rhetoric Linda Flower in the late s and early s. The study examined the effect of using the reading for writing approach on developing the writing ability of Egyptian EFL learners and their attitudes towards writing.
Sample. Thirty, first year secondary school students participated in this study. Method. A quasi-experimental pretest posttest control group design was used to form an experimental .Download